Pembrolizumab Approval: Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

The FDA has approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda®, Merck) for the treatment of patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) carcinoma in situ, with or without papillary tumors. Pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, is indicated for patients who are ineligible for or have elected not to receive radical cystectomy and who do not respond to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy.The approval was based on Keynote 057 (NCT02625961), a multicenter, single...
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Gemcitabine Plus Eribulin in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

The phase 2 California Cancer Consortium trial has reported its final results: a combined regimen of gemcitabine (Gemzar®, Eli Lilly) plus eribulin (Halaven®, Eisai Inc.) shows efficacy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who are ineligible for cisplatin-based treatment. Many patients with urothelial carcinoma—the most common type of bladder cancer—that has metastasized are ineligible for chemotherapy treatments containing cisplatin. As such, alternatives are needed for th...
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Individualized Treatment for Bladder Cancer Shows Promise

A new technique that utilizes liquid biopsies and conditional reprogramming has the potential to offer personalized treatment strategies for patients with bladder cancer.Accounting for approximately 17,000 deaths in the United States in 2018, bladder cancer is distinctive from many other cancers in that its survival rates have not improved in the past 30 years. Treatment regimens vary due to their dependency on associated risk factors and each patient's personal clinical characteristics. Investi...
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Coxsackievirus: Possible Oncolytic Agent for Bladder Cancer

Many viruses, including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, and others, have been developed into oncolytic agents that are able to kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Scientists have just discovered that another virus, coxsackievirus, is a potential oncolytic agent that can be used to fight bladder cancer.Coxsackievirus is part of the Enterovirus genus, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus. This virus usually causes fever, skin rash, sore throat, an...
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How Soon After Quitting Smoking Does Bladder Cancer Risk Decrease?

One of the biggest risk factors for bladder cancer is smoking. Evidence has shown that former smokers have a reduced risk of bladder cancer compared with current smokers, but how long does it take after quitting for that risk to decrease, and how much does the risk decrease compared with that of never-smokers? According to a new study analyzing bladder cancer risk in postmenopausal women, former smokers' bladder cancer risk decreases by 25% within the first 10 years after quitting and continues ...
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